Draft 0.4.1 (a work in progress)
The story actually begins in the United States, where the engine was initally developed as a V-4. Ford US could never figure out what to do with this engine, (one of the few American applications was the often forgotten mid-engined Mustang I show car) so they handed it off to Ford Germany. Ford Germany used the V-4 in several small cars. Apparently the Ford Taunus P4 got the 1.5 and 1.7 liter V-4s as early as 1962. Curiously enough, the V-4 was also used in several Saabs!) but they soon decided that it would be relatively easy to add two more cylinders to it, and thus the Cologne V-6 was born. The V-6 was initally used in the Ford Taunus, but it became much more famous in the European Ford Capri. (known in North America as the Mercury Capri) Cologne V-6 powered Capri RS-2600 race cars (with special aluminum Weslake heads) dominated Group 2 racing in 1971 and 1972. Capris used the Cologne V-6 until production ended late in 1986.
The Cologne V-6 kept going after Capri production ended. It was used in Ford Sierras, Ford (Merkur) Scorpios, and Ford Ranger pickup trucks, and Ford Bronco II SUVs in the 1980s.
In 1991, the bore and deck height were increased to increase displacement to 4 liters. This engine best known for its use in the Ford Explorer SUV, however it was also used in Ranger pickup trucks. It was also used in the Mazda clones of these vehicles. (Mazda Navajo and B-4000 pickup truck) Starting in 2005, the SOHC version is being used in the Ford Mustang.
The following modifications have been made to the Ford SVO table:
Distance between bore centers is 4.760 in all cases. (data from Ford's performance parts catalogue - 2003.)
V-6 firing order is 1-4-2-5-3-6 in all cases.
RS-2600 used a 69mm stroke crankshaft instead of the stock 66.8 crankshaft.
1983-86 2.8 liter engines have a stronger block than 1974-82 Cologne V-6s.
* = Figures calculated from SVO specification in inches, using 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
|2.0||V6||C||74TM6015DA||1970-80||Gears||Used on many Capri in Continental Euorpe (i.e. not the UK) between 1970 and 1980. They were not exported to the USA. I'm a little suspicious of the part number that Svein Arne Hagen provided, since it indicates that it was first produced in 1974. We know that there were 2.0 liter Cologne V-6 Capris as early as 1970. There may be other earlier part numbers.|
|2.3||V6||A||74TM6015GA||1970-80||Gears||Used on many Capri in Continental Euorpe (i.e. not the UK) between 1970 and 1980. They were not exported to the USA. I'm a little suspicious of the part number that Svein Arne Hagen provided, since it indicates that it was first produced in 1974. We know that there were 2.3 liter Cologne V-6 Capris as early as 1970. There may be other earlier part numbers.|
|2.4||V6||D||1986-89||Chain||We don't know much about this one. It was apparently used in some European Scorpios. It is apparently a close relative of the 2.9, with an 84mm bore.|
|2.8||V6||E||73TM6015AA||1974-1982||Gears||Often called the "automotive" block. While best known for its application in the Ford's European Capri from 1974-83, it was also used in the 1974-78 Mustang II, and several Ford USA "Fox" chassis cars (including the Mercury Capri) from 1979-80. Presumably, there were many other Euorpean Fords which used this engine.|
|2.8||V6||E||83TM6015AA||1983-1986||Gears||Often called the "truck" block, since it was used in the US in Ford trucks such as the Ranger and Bronco II. Apparently, it was also used in many Capris including the 2.8i. It is somewhat stronger than the earlier 2.8 block. It also uses somewhat larger cam bearings.|
|2.9||V6||F||87TM6015AA||1986-1992||Chain||Designed for hydraulic valve lifters.|
|4.0||V6||90TM6015AB||1990-1995||Chain||Often called "the Explorer engine", it was also used in Ford Ranger pickup trucks.|
Since the 4.0 has no distrubutor, it might be a little more difficult to locate.
The casting letter may indicate the bore more than anything else. Note that the four engines with the "A" casting code (1.5 V-4, 1.7 V-4, 2.3 V-6 and 2.6 V-6) all have the 90mm bore.
|Casting Letter||Bore (mm)|
|2.6||3||2||70TM||Used on 1972-73 US-spec Capri I 2600. Apparently, it is also used on the 2.0
liter version, and I'd guess on the 2.3 as well.
Some people like to put these heads on later 2.8 engines. Some people believe that the earlier 2.6 heads flow better. The 2.6 heads make it possible to fit the Kugelfischer fuel injection system used on the Capri RS-2600. These heads will not easily fit on the later 2.8 block however, due to water passage alignment problems.
|Weslake||3||3||WRP 151 4001||Used on 1971-73 Capri RS-2600 race cars. These aluminum heads are extraordinarily rare, and similarly expensive. They will only work with the corresponding Weslake injection intake. Casting number is a Weslake code, not a Ford code.|
|2.8 non-smog||2||3||74TM||Used on 1974 US-spec Capri I.|
|2.8 smog||2||3||75TM||Used on 1976-77 US-spec Capri II.|
|2.8 European||3||2||79TM||Used on 1979-86 European-spec Capri III.|
|Swaymar||3||3||79TM?||A modification of the 2.8 European head, with the exhaust port "un-siamesed".|
|2.8||3||3||85TM||Used in Sierra XR 4x4 and Scorpio=(Granada MK3 in UK) , circa 1986-87|
|2.9 (early)||3||3||86TM||Used on 1986-1992 Ford Rangers and Ford Bronco IIs.|
|2.9 (Scorpio)||3||3||86TM||Used on 1989 Ford (Merkur) Scorpios|
|2.9 (late)||2||3||89TM||Used on mid 1988-1992 Ford Rangers and Ford Bronco IIs.|
|2.9 Cosworth DOHC||?||Used on a few European Ford Scorpios. Many people have wondered whether these DOHC heads could be fitted to a 4.0 block. Sven Pruett has done it, and apparently he even made it work fairly well, but it took an enormous amount of effort to get it to work. Cosworth has also apparently done it with the FBD and FBF engines, but I don't know if these ever made it into production.|
|4.0 OHV||3||3||90TM||Used on Ford Rangers and Explorers.|
|4.0 OHV||3||3||93TM||Used on Ford Rangers and Explorers. Similar to 90TM, but said to be a stronger casting.|
|4.0 OHV||3||3||95TM||Used on Ford Rangers and Explorers. The first of the "Small chamber" heads. Smooth intake port, old style exhaust port.|
|4.0 OHV||3||3||98TM||Used on Ford Rangers and Explorers. A refinement of the 95TM head, it has smooth intake ports, small chambers, and round exhaust ports.|
|4.0 SOHC||3||3||97JM||Single overhead cam version of the 4.0, Used on Ford Rangers, Explorers, and 2005 Mustangs.|
|2.4||V6||86TM6303__||1986-89||Chain||The 2.4 apparently uses the same crankshaft as the 2.9.|
|4.0||V6||97JM6303AC||1997-||Chain||Apparently, this crank is used on both OHV and SOHC Cologne V-6s.|
|FBA||2.9||1990||Ford Scorpio engine.|
|FBB||2.9||1990||Modified FBA, for 4WD Scorpios|
|FBC||3.4||1990||Modified FBA, based on 4-liter block|
|FBD||4.0||1990||4-liter version of FBA|
|FBE||3.0||1991||Racing version of FBA.|
|FBF||4.0||1993||4-liter prototype of FBC..|
Data taken from Cosworth's history page.
The Cosworth engines apparently have some slight differences in the block as well. I have heard from a couple of sources that the FBA does not have the holes for the pushrods drilled into it.
To the best of my knowledge, Cosworth did not use casting numbers on the heads like Ford did.
Cosworth apparently used a different block casting, and a different crankshaft. The FBA block is number 919M6015AA, and apparently it does not have pushrod holes drilled into it.
The first FBA crankshaft was 919M6303AA. Apparently, later FB_ series crankshafts were 959M6303 AA and 969M6303 AA. We speculate that these were from 1995 and 1996, and might be stronger than the earlier version. These crankshafts are apparently Ford items, as they have Ford ovals cast into them.
Note that in both cases, the engine family code is "9M" instead of "TM"
I don't know if the Ranger 2.8 blocks also have different engine mount bolt patterns. It may be possible to use 2.8 Ranger mounts with the Scorpio 2.9 and not have this problem (when putting into a Ranger).
I have a 4 liter block and will check to see if the 4 liter engine mount pattern matches the Ranger 2.9 pattern. BTW, it is possible to mount a Scorpio 2.9 oil pan to a 4.0 engine if you drill and tap 4 holes in the block. The Scorpio pan clears the 4.0 crank and rods fine.
The Scorpio cam is different from the Ranger cam......Putting a Scorpio cam in a 2.9 Ranger seems to improve high rpm performance. OK, maybe that's NOT what you want with a truck but....
The flexplate and adapter bushing to the torque converter is different but the Ranger parts will bolt to the Scorpio 2.9. If you use a Scorpio flexplate with a Ranger A4LD then the torque converter bolts won't go through the flexplate. Don't ask how I know this....
4.0's and 2.9's share the same oil pump
Scorpio 2.9 exhaust manifolds will bolt to a 4.0 head but the ports are slightly misaligned. Nothing a die grinder won't fix......
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last updated: 4 March 2010
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