This page will hopefully contain all results of DNA testing of our many different ancestral origins. Most of the results will be borrowed from the works of other researchers, that are somehow related to Charlene Woodard or Michael Fromholt. It will include information on our Y-DNA on our paternal branches, as well as our mtDNA on our maternal lines.
Of course, some explanation on DNA testing is required here. First, the Y-DNA is passed down from father to son, generation from generation. So you, as a male, in general terms, will have the same Y-DNA as your father, his father, and his father, and farther on back in time. The mtDNA is from the maternal line, as it passes from mother to daughter. It also passes down from mother to son, but not from son to offspring.
The genealogical uses of DNA are quite obvious, as it can prove, or disprove, whether two people of the same last name are descended from a recent common ancestor. It also can show, as in the case of my Cope line, how one common ancestor can have many descendents of many different surnames. Most of my references that I will include, comes from two main sources, Wikipedia and FamilyTreeDNA. Please feel free to visit these sights to learn more about DNA testing.
Ancestor: Kasper Fromhold(also spelled Frommelt) d: 1637 Was a baker in Rochlitz, Sachsen spouse: unknown at this time Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt Test Subjects: Michael A Fromholt Test Results
I now have the 25-marker test results. Although the 12-marker results showed exact matches to five individuals, all from the British Isles, the 25-marker results have no exact matches. At the moment, on 11 October, 2008, there were three individuals with 2-step mutations for the 25 marker results comparison, one each from England, Germany, and Slovakia. For 3-step mutations from my results, there were 7 from the British Isles, one from Germany, and one from Slovakia. At the moment, I am going to attribute the high amount of British Isles to a bias in test subjects, with a higher proportion being from that locale. However, this could also signal a backwards migration from the British Isles to mainland Europe. This could show a connection to the Saxon invasion of England, from the 4th century onwards.
As for the 12-marker results, there is a substantial number of results with a one-step mutation, with most having Great Britain connections, but still a large amount from mainland Europe, with most of these being Germanic in nature, but also from Scandinavia and the Iberian Peninsula.
The Haplogroup test came out to be R1b1b2a1b4(formerly known as R1b1c10). Further testing have shown negative towards all known subclades at this time. This shows my Fromhold ancestor's DNA did not mutate as others have. I am trying to find more information on this haplogroup at this time. This subclad of the Haplogroup R1b, seemed to have migrated to the area of Europe north of the Alps, after the Last Glacial Maximum about 10 to 12 thousand years ago. They were what were known as the "La Tene" Celts. Eventually, they spread out across the rest of mainland Europe, and a test results have show, even into the southern British Isle.
My take on this, is that as the weather in Europe moderated after the last ice age declined, the Le Tene Celts continued north down the Rhine Valley, spreading out East and West as they went. Somewhere back in time, our direct line split, with some going to Britain, and ours towards Eastern Europe. As of March, 2010, there are only five others with exact matches on the first 12 markers, most with an English background. There are quite a few with one-step mutations, with a large amount being Germanic. But the predominant still being British Isles. This can probably be attributed to a bias in data sampling, for there is a vastly larger number of test subjects with a known background from the British Isles. Please note that this is a 12-marker test. Some of those with exact matches have 25- and 37-marker test results, and after 12 markers, they do not match.
With the results of the next 13 markers, making my test a 25-marker result, there are no matches from other test subjects with mine. This shows a uniqueness of my test results. At the moment, it seems the Fromhold/Fromholt line is unique, with no matches with other surnames. There are three other individual test subjects that have a two marker mutation. Two of which have ancestry from mainland Europe, Prussia and Slovakia, and the third from England. What is interesting is that with my haplotype, my ancestor is a rare find in the part of Germany he was from. This could be due to a re-populating of what is today the present German State of Saxony(Sachsen) around the 12th century, thanks in part to silver mining. I'll have to add more about this at another time, as I am continuously researching.
The R1b1b2a1b4 subclad (formerly R1b1c10), also known as R1b1b2a1b7 in Family Tree DNA, is defined by the marker U152 (also called S28) and its discovery was announced in 2005 by EthnoAncestry. Although sample sizes are relatively small, it appears to reach a maximum in Alpine Germany and Switzerland. Ethnoancestry's commercial and research branches have shown that U152 is found from Greece westward to the Bay of Biscay in France. It appears to follow the distribution of the La Tene Celtic peoples. The percentages here are much less than found in the Alps. It has yet to be found anywhere in Ireland or Spain. Northern Italy seems to be a meeting place for both U106 and U152. Like U106, U152's specifications were not initially officially published by EthnoAncestry against their previous assertions that data would be publicly published; but again the marker was subsequently identified independently by Sims et al (2007).
It has been proposed that the ancestor of this subclad, came up from one of the refugium's during the Last Glacial Maximum, most likely the Balkan refugium, although the Italian refugium is also possible. More on the earlier origins of the R1b Hapolgroup can be found at Wikipedia, and on the above mentions Le Tene Celtic connection at David Faux Resource Page.
Ancestor: Ichabod Woodard, born 12 Dec 1782 Essex Co, New Jersey died 2 Jun 1868 Nelsonville, Athens Co, Ohio spouse: Sarah Bennett Relationship: Great-great-great-grandfather to Charlene S Woodard Fromholt Test Subjects: Dan Woodard, brother to Charlene. Test Results
|DYS=||460||GATA H4||YCA II a||YCA II b||456||607||576||570||CDY a||CDY b||442||438|
Although on the first 12 markers there are 87 matches, it drops significantly after that, down to 6 exact matches at 25-markers, then 0 at 37-markers. However, at 37-markers, there are two individuals that are off by two, and both of them have the Woodard/Wooward surname. And there is also a third test subject that is also a Woodard/Woodward, that is off by 3 markers. This signifies a very close ancestral connection. Of tehse three, one has an immigration pattern of England to Austrailia, probably from the 18th century. The second from England to Canada, dates unknown at this time, and the third from England to Maryland in the 17th century.
I have done some preliminary checking on the last one, but at this time have not found anything to sugest that there is a connection between the two Woodard/Woodward family's. harlene's ancestor, Ichabod Woodard, has been said to be from Essex County, New jersey. I have yet to find any documentation on this, other than a biography on Ichabod that was written in the 1880's, over a decade after his death. have found other Woodard men in New jersey, but none in said county at this time frame.
There were also other close matches of other surnames, of interest are Wood and Woodall.
The Haplogroup is I(M523+), and although we have not had it tested, it is probably I1d1. And, compared to what has been written by Ken Nordtvedt on the I1 haplotypes, this Woodard/Woodard line compares closely to the I1 Norse Modal, which has it's peak gradient in Sweden. Now, the three Woodard/Woodward matches all have recent ancestral rots from England. Our common ancestor was probably a Norseman that migrated to the British Isles probably durng the 8th and 9th century's. This person obviuosly had a brother that remained in Scandinavia, for ehre are also close 37-marker matches (six in all) of known recent Scandinavian ancestry, while the rest (22) are from he British Isles. This includes all other surnames, beside Woodard/Woodward. So the individual in question migrated from Scandinavia to the British Isles beore the advent of surnames, which did not became used until well after the 11th century.
Ancestor: James B Cope b 1776 North Carolina d: 1874 Warren Co, Tennessee (Father was named William Cope) spouse: 1-Lydia Payne 2- Polly Merritt Relationship: Great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt Test Subjects: First cousin to Carolyn Cope Fromholt, mother to Michael Fromholt third cousin to Michael Fromholt Test Results
DNA values of my male Cope line have matched with over thirty different surnames of others that have been tested through FamilyTreeDNA. However, these test results showed a very different DNA makeup compared to others with the Cope surname, eliminating the long held belief that my ancestor, James Bradley Cope, was closely related to the Cope family's that settled in Tennessee at about the same time as he.
Additional testing of the DNA test subject showed the Haplogroup to belong to the R1b1c7 subclad. This is a subclad of the R1b Haplogroup, found in the Northern British Isles, in particular the Northwest area of Ireland. The R1bc group of males are the most prevelant in modern Europe. They entered Europe after the last ice age from Asia, with the subclad of R1bc7 Ireland and Scotland.
Ancestor: Guillaume(Gil) Fouquet/Fuqua b: c1671 France? d: c1698 Henrico Co, Virginia spouse: Jane Eyre Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt Test Subjects: unlisted Test Results
Haplogroup shows an ancient ancestry from the area of Albania and the southern Caucases. Before that, this group is descended from those that migrated out from the Fertile Crescent about 7000 to 9000 years ago, perhaps by way of the Balkans. There were very little matches with these results, only three matched perfectly, two with the Fuqua surname. There were only one other test result that was off by one marker, and eleven that were off by two. However, this could be due to a low volume of test subjects. It is interesting to note that of those closely matching, they came from a rather wide area, from Iraq to Russia to Sweden to France and then to Italy.
I've heard plenty of story's about Guillaume(Gil) Fouquet/Fuqua. Some say he was born in France and immigrated to London, then to America. And some say he was born in London, a son of a Frenchman. The family may have even been in England for at least two generations before Gil migrated to Virginia and married Jane Eyre, who was from well to-do English immigrants. Most do believe that the Fouquet family were Huguenots’, that fled France to avoid religious persecution.
Ancestor: John Shirley b:17 Nov 1728 d: 26 Aug 1821 spouse: Charity Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Charlene S Woodard Fromholt Test Subjects: unlisted Test Results
A lot of information that I have found on the Shirley family came from the Shirley Family Association.
Around 8,000 years ago, the Neolithic peoples of the Middle East that had developed the new technology of agriculture began moving into Europe. There were several haplogroups involved, mainly E3b, F, J2 and G2. These Neolithic haplogroups came in several waves over time and are found predominantly along the Mediterranean coast. Around 20% of the present-day population are from these Neolithic haplogroups. What is interesting to note is that the agricultural technology spread much further than the people who first 'invented' it. Although I am not sure of the exact test results of the Shirley test subject, it here seem to be very few matches with the results.
Not much is known of our earliest verified Shirley ancestor, other than that the family was in Virginia before 1728.
Ancestor: Peter Gunnason Rambo spouse: Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Charlene S Woodard Fromholt Test Subjects: unlisted Test Results
Another result with very few matches, and for this one, the only exact match was with someone from India. The R1a1 Haplogroup is thought to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. It also could have originated with the Kurgan Culture which is known for the domestication of the horse approximately 5000 years ago. This Hapolgroup is currently found in high concentrations in Central and western Asia, India and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.
Our Rambo came over from Sweden and settled in the area of present day Philadelphia, before 1647.
Ancestor: Paul Trout b 1731 d 1803 Shenandoah Co Virginia spouse: Anna Margaretha ______________ Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Charlene S Woodard Fromholt Test Subjects: Distant cousin to Charlene Test Results
is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It can be found in most present-day European populations, most commonly in Scandinavia, Sardinia, and the Slavic populations of the Western Balkans in southeastern Europe. The haplogroup is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of Haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. It may have been confined to a refuge in the Balkans during the last Ice Age, and then spread northward during the recolonization of northern Europe following the retreat of the glaciers.
Based on DNA dating analyses, Haplogroup I first arrived in Europe around 20,000-25,000 years ago from the Middle East, just prior to or contemporaneous with the onset of the last glacial maximum (LGM) approximately 21 thousand years ago. Some speculate this migration was associated with the initial spread of the Gravettian culture. The composite subclade I* contains individuals directly descended from the earliest members of Haplogroup I, bearing none of the subsequent mutations which identify the remaining named subclades.
The Haplogroup I1a lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Viking / Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies.
From the Trout paternal line on my wife's paternal side, her great-great-great-great-grandfather. The test subject's common ancestor with Charlene is Casper Trout, born about 1760 in Virginia, and died in Morgan Co, Ohio in 1837. Although the test subject had no other exact matches, there were two other Trout test subjects that were off at one marker. One of these is known to be more distantly related, while the other's connection is not known at this time. All were have known to have come from Germany. Our line tested out as having the Haplogroup Group I1a.
Ancestor: Jesse Tolliver b: 1756 Fauquier Co, Virginia d: 4 Mar 1838 Ashe Co, North Carolina spouse: Lucy Robins, Martha Stamper Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt Test Subjects: unlisted Test Results
Jesse had an illigeminant daughter with Lucy Robins, named Elizabeth Robins, and ths is my line.
This R1b Haplogroup is the most common haplogroup among the European population. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. There are close to 500 exact matches with the Tolliver test results, with only a few having the Tolliver surname.
More information can be found at Tolliver Family Webpage.
Ancestor: George Schwab(Swope) b: 1610, Baden d: c1681/1689 Baden spouse: Margarethe Zimmerman Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Charlene S Woodard Fromholt Test Subjects: unlisted Test Results
This R1b Haplogroup is the most common haplogroup among the European population. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. The Swope test subject had an exact match with forty-eight other tested individuals of different surnames.
The descendents of George Schwab came to America in the early 1700's, settling first in Pennsylvania and spreading across the United States.
Ancestor: Gerrit Janz Van Couwenhoven(Conover) b: c1550 Amersfoort, Netherlands spouse: unknown Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt Test Subjects: unlisted Test Results
Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. Surprisingly, even though this is a popular haplogroup, there are no exact matches with the test results. And only forty with a one-step mutation.
The Conover surname was originally Van Couwenhoven, and was spelled many ways. This family was one of the first to come from Netherlands and settle in New Amsterdam, what would eventually be renamed New York.
Ancestor: Robert McGrew b: 1668 MacGuirebridge, County Tyrone, Ireland d: 1726 York Co, Pennsylvania spouse: Isabella Finley Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Charlene S Woodard Fromholt Test Subjects: unlisted Test Results
R1b is the most common Hapolgroup in Europe, as it had entered Europe before the last glaciations period, expading northward from the Iberian Peninsula as the ice sheets melted. Before that, most theories contend that these people migrated from Asia, north of the Black and Caspian Sea.
Robert McGrew was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, and came to America with his children, settling in Pennsylvania. Of the test results, there are only ten exact matches, and there was another McGrew test subject that was off by one marker, and two more off by two markers, signaling a possible common ancestor.
It seems my wife's McGrew paternal line is closely connected to my Cope paternal line. Although it has not been tested out, it is predicted that Robert McGrew is also of the Haplogroup R1b1b2e(formerly R1b1c7).
Ancestor: Steven Coerte Van Voorhees b: c1600 Hess, Netherlands d: 16 Feb 1683/84 Flatbush, Kings Co, New York spouse: Willemtje Roelfse Sebring Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt Test Subjects: numerous Test Results
There were four Voorhees(and similar spellings that were tested, and three had exact matches, the fourth being off by one marker. There was also an anonymous test subject that is an exact match, and tested out as haplogroup J2. There were also four others of by one marker.
The J2 Haplogroup shows an ancient ancestry from the area of Albania and the southern Caucases. Before that, this group is descended from those that migrated out from the Fertile Crescent about 7000 to 9000 years ago, perhaps by way of the Balkans.
Ancestor: Thomas Chandler b 1569 Oare, Wiltshire, England d 20 Jun 1629 Oare, Wiltshire, England spouse: Ann Downham Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Charlene Sue Woodard Fromholt Test Subjects: numerous Test Results
There were relatively few matches in Family Tree Y-DNA test results, and of exact matches, six of seven were exact matches. This family has supposedly been traced back to Richard Le Chaundeler, born about 1300.
Ancestor: James M Roberson b: 1737 possibly Scotland spouse: Mary Fuqua Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt Test Subjects: numerous Test Results
It is said that his parents were Andrew Roberson and Elizabeth Monroe. Other sources mention James Monroe and Elizabeth. There were no matches to other Roberson lines or similar surnames.
I've just started DNA testing on my maternal line (Called mtDNA), in seeing how my ancient maternal DNA compares to other test subjects.
Maternal lineage: Carolyn Cope (mother) Kathryn Fella (grandmother) Edna Weitthoff (great-grandmother) Elizabeth Steffen (great-great-grandmother) Mary Jergens (great-great-great-grandmother) Monica, wife of Phillip Jergens (great-great-great-great-grandmother) Information on oldest known ancestor: Monica, wife of Phillip Jergens, was born in Baden in about 1782, and died sometime after 1850 and before 1860. She was originally buried at St Henry's Cemetery, but when this cemetery was abandoned, she was re-buried at nearby Calvary Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio. Test Subjects: Michael A Fromholt Test Results
|HVR1 differences from CRS|
|HVR2 differences from CRS|
The test result match for the HVR1 sequence came up with exact matches for 81 other individuals. Of these, the known ancestral origins breaks down as follow: British Isles-39, Western Europe-9, Scandanavia-3, Middle East-1.
However, on the HVR2 panel I only have two matches at this time, but ancestry is not known on either. I have contacted both individuals but have not received an answer at this time of writing. I have seen that there may be some sort of connection to Alsace of France, which at one time was part of Germany, so it's possible that since Monica was stated as being from Baden, she may have been from the upper Rhine region of the Kingdom of Baden.
The high amount of British Isles is probably due to a larger test population of subjects with that specific background, and less of those with a Western Europe background. More testing of subjects of Western Europe is probably needed. Eventually, I will have the second panel, HVR2, tested to see what other mutations I have compared to the CSR.
The mtDNA Haplogroup H is a Eurasian Haplogroup, and it is believed that it makes up 40% to 50% of the mtDNA lineages in Western Europe, and becomes less frequent as you travel East. Several independent studies have concluded that this haplogroup probably evolved in West Asia about 30,000 years ago, having arrived to Europe 20,000 to 25,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the southwest of the continent. After the Last Glacial Maximum, it then spread north re-populating northern Europe, probably from the Franco-Cantabrian region about 13,000 years ago. More can be read on this haplogroup at The mtDNA Haplogroup Project at Family Tree DNA, and also through Wikipedia.
Please note, that all of the information for Haplogroups came from various sources off of the internet.