This page will hopefully contain all results of DNA testing of our many different ancestral origins. Most of the results will be borrowed from the works of other researchers, that are somehow related to Charlene Woodard or Michael Fromholt. It will include information on our Y-DNA on our paternal branches, as well as our mtDNA on our maternal lines.

Of course, some explanation on DNA testing is required here. First, the Y-DNA is passed down from father to son, generation from generation. So you, as a male, in general terms, will have the same Y-DNA as your father, his father, and his father, and farther on back in time. The mtDNA is from the maternal line, as it passes from mother to daughter. It also passes down from mother to son, but not from son to offspring.

The genealogical uses of DNA are quite obvious, as it can prove, or disprove, whether two people of the same last name are descended from a recent common ancestor. It also can show, as in the case of my Cope line, how one common ancestor can have many descendents of many different surnames. Most of my references that I will include, comes from two main sources, Wikipedia and FamilyTreeDNA. Please feel free to visit these sights to learn more about DNA testing.

Ancestor: Kasper Fromhold(also spelled Frommelt) d: 1637 Was a baker in Rochlitz, Sachsen 
    spouse: unknown at this time
Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    to Michael A Fromholt
Test Subjects: Michael A Fromholt
Test Results
Locus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
DYS= 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426c 388 439 389-1 392 389-2 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 49 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 23 14 11 10 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 31 14 15 17 17
Haplogroup: R1b1b2a1b4(Family Tree DNA) R1b1b2a2g(Ethnocentry)

I now have the 25-marker test results. Although the 12-marker results showed exact matches to five individuals, all from the British Isles, the 25-marker results have no exact matches. At the moment, on 11 October, 2008, there were three individuals with 2-step mutations for the 25 marker results comparison, one each from England, Germany, and Slovakia. For 3-step mutations from my results, there were 7 from the British Isles, one from Germany, and one from Slovakia. At the moment, I am going to attribute the high amount of British Isles to a bias in test subjects, with a higher proportion being from that locale. However, this could also signal a backwards migration from the British Isles to mainland Europe. This could show a connection to the Saxon invasion of England, from the 4th century onwards.

As for the 12-marker results, there is a substantial number of results with a one-step mutation, with most having Great Britain connections, but still a large amount from mainland Europe, with most of these being Germanic in nature, but also from Scandinavia and the Iberian Peninsula.

The Haplogroup test came out to be R1b1b2a1b4(formerly known as R1b1c10). Further testing have shown negative towards all known subclades at this time. This shows my Fromhold ancestor's DNA did not mutate as others have. I am trying to find more information on this haplogroup at this time. This subclad of the Haplogroup R1b, seemed to have migrated to the area of Europe north of the Alps, after the Last Glacial Maximum about 10 to 12 thousand years ago. They were what were known as the "La Tene" Celts. Eventually, they spread out across the rest of mainland Europe, and a test results have show, even into the southern British Isle.

My take on this, is that as the weather in Europe moderated after the last ice age declined, the Le Tene Celts continued north down the Rhine Valley, spreading out East and West as they went. Somewhere back in time, our direct line split, with some going to Britain, and ours towards Eastern Europe. As of March, 2010, there are only five others with exact matches on the first 12 markers, most with an English background. There are quite a few with one-step mutations, with a large amount being Germanic. But the predominant still being British Isles. This can probably be attributed to a bias in data sampling, for there is a vastly larger number of test subjects with a known background from the British Isles. Please note that this is a 12-marker test. Some of those with exact matches have 25- and 37-marker test results, and after 12 markers, they do not match.

With the results of the next 13 markers, making my test a 25-marker result, there are no matches from other test subjects with mine. This shows a uniqueness of my test results. At the moment, it seems the Fromhold/Fromholt line is unique, with no matches with other surnames. There are three other individual test subjects that have a two marker mutation. Two of which have ancestry from mainland Europe, Prussia and Slovakia, and the third from England. What is interesting is that with my haplotype, my ancestor is a rare find in the part of Germany he was from. This could be due to a re-populating of what is today the present German State of Saxony(Sachsen) around the 12th century, thanks in part to silver mining. I'll have to add more about this at another time, as I am continuously researching.

The R1b1b2a1b4 subclad (formerly R1b1c10), also known as R1b1b2a1b7 in Family Tree DNA, is defined by the marker U152 (also called S28) and its discovery was announced in 2005 by EthnoAncestry. Although sample sizes are relatively small, it appears to reach a maximum in Alpine Germany and Switzerland. Ethnoancestry's commercial and research branches have shown that U152 is found from Greece westward to the Bay of Biscay in France. It appears to follow the distribution of the La Tene Celtic peoples. The percentages here are much less than found in the Alps. It has yet to be found anywhere in Ireland or Spain. Northern Italy seems to be a meeting place for both U106 and U152. Like U106, U152's specifications were not initially officially published by EthnoAncestry against their previous assertions that data would be publicly published; but again the marker was subsequently identified independently by Sims et al (2007).

It has been proposed that the ancestor of this subclad, came up from one of the refugium's during the Last Glacial Maximum, most likely the Balkan refugium, although the Italian refugium is also possible. More on the earlier origins of the R1b Hapolgroup can be found at Wikipedia, and on the above mentions Le Tene Celtic connection at David Faux Resource Page.

Ancestor: Ichabod Woodard, born 12 Dec 1782 Essex Co, New Jersey died 2 Jun 1868 Nelsonville, Athens Co, Ohio
    spouse: Sarah Bennett
Relationship: Great-great-great-grandfather
    to Charlene S Woodard Fromholt
Test Subjects: Dan Woodard, brother to Charlene.
Test Results
Locus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
DYS= 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426c 388 439 389-1 392 389-2 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 49 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 23 15 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 15
Locus 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
DYS= 460 GATA H4 YCA II a YCA II b 456 607 576 570 CDY a CDY b 442 438
Alleles 9 10 19 21 18 12 16 20 30 35 11 10
Haplogroup: I1d1(predicted}

Although on the first 12 markers there are 87 matches, it drops significantly after that, down to 6 exact matches at 25-markers, then 0 at 37-markers. However, at 37-markers, there are two individuals that are off by two, and both of them have the Woodard/Wooward surname. And there is also a third test subject that is also a Woodard/Woodward, that is off by 3 markers. This signifies a very close ancestral connection. Of tehse three, one has an immigration pattern of England to Austrailia, probably from the 18th century. The second from England to Canada, dates unknown at this time, and the third from England to Maryland in the 17th century.

I have done some preliminary checking on the last one, but at this time have not found anything to sugest that there is a connection between the two Woodard/Woodward family's. harlene's ancestor, Ichabod Woodard, has been said to be from Essex County, New jersey. I have yet to find any documentation on this, other than a biography on Ichabod that was written in the 1880's, over a decade after his death. have found other Woodard men in New jersey, but none in said county at this time frame.

There were also other close matches of other surnames, of interest are Wood and Woodall.

The Haplogroup is I(M523+), and although we have not had it tested, it is probably I1d1. And, compared to what has been written by Ken Nordtvedt on the I1 haplotypes, this Woodard/Woodard line compares closely to the I1 Norse Modal, which has it's peak gradient in Sweden. Now, the three Woodard/Woodward matches all have recent ancestral rots from England. Our common ancestor was probably a Norseman that migrated to the British Isles probably durng the 8th and 9th century's. This person obviuosly had a brother that remained in Scandinavia, for ehre are also close 37-marker matches (six in all) of known recent Scandinavian ancestry, while the rest (22) are from he British Isles. This includes all other surnames, beside Woodard/Woodward. So the individual in question migrated from Scandinavia to the British Isles beore the advent of surnames, which did not became used until well after the 11th century.

Ancestor: James B Cope b 1776 North Carolina  d: 1874 Warren Co, Tennessee (Father was named William Cope)
    spouse: 1-Lydia Payne  2- Polly Merritt 
Relationship: Great-great-great-great-grandfather to Michael A Fromholt
Test Subjects: First cousin to Carolyn Cope Fromholt, mother to Michael Fromholt 
               third cousin to Michael Fromholt
Test Results
Locus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
DYS= 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426c 388 439 389-1 392 389-2 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 49 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 14 14 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 16 16 17
Haplogroup: R1b1b2a1b5(Family Tree DNA) R1b1b2a2e(Ethnocentry)

DNA values of my male Cope line have matched with over thirty different surnames of others that have been tested through FamilyTreeDNA. However, these test results showed a very different DNA makeup compared to others with the Cope surname, eliminating the long held belief that my ancestor, James Bradley Cope, was closely related to the Cope family's that settled in Tennessee at about the same time as he.

Additional testing of the DNA test subject showed the Haplogroup to belong to the R1b1c7 subclad. This is a subclad of the R1b Haplogroup, found in the Northern British Isles, in particular the Northwest area of Ireland. The R1bc group of males are the most prevelant in modern Europe. They entered Europe after the last ice age from Asia, with the subclad of R1bc7 Ireland and Scotland.

Ancestor: Guillaume(Gil) Fouquet/Fuqua b: c1671 France?  d: c1698 Henrico Co, Virginia
    spouse: Jane Eyre
Relationship: Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather 
      to Michael A Fromholt
Test Subjects: unlisted
Test Results
Locus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
DYS= 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426c 388 439 389-1 392 389-2 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 49 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 12 23 15 10 10 17 11 15 13 12 11 28 16 8 9 11 12 28 16 19 29 13 15 16 19

Haplogroup shows an ancient ancestry from the area of Albania and the southern Caucases. Before that, this group is descended from those that migrated out from the Fertile Crescent about 7000 to 9000 years ago, perhaps by way of the Balkans. There were very little matches with these results, only three matched perfectly, two with the Fuqua surname. There were only one other test result that was off by one marker, and eleven that were off by two. However, this could be due to a low volume of test subjects. It is interesting to note that of those closely matching, they came from a rather wide area, from Iraq to Russia to Sweden to France and then to Italy.

I've heard plenty of story's about Guillaume(Gil) Fouquet/Fuqua. Some say he was born in France and immigrated to London, then to America. And some say he was born in London, a son of a Frenchman. The family may have even been in England for at least two generations before Gil migrated to Virginia and married Jane Eyre, who was from well to-do English immigrants. Most do believe that the Fouquet family were Huguenots’, that fled France to avoid religious persecution.