Conversion and Calculation Help!

Measurement Conversions






Beer and Wine Calculations

Hydrometer Corrections

Gyle Reserved

Pearson's Square

Adjusted Alcohol

Measurement Conversions

This calculator does many of the measurement conversions which are required by the brewer and winemaker as well as those making fortified liqueurs. For each of these conversions the amount in the initial measurement is entered and the measurement is selected from a pull-down list. The measurement to be converted to is then also selected from a pull-down list. Finally, click on the submit button and the conversion will be performed and displayed.

Volume Conversions

Conversions can be performed from and to any of the following liquid measurements:

Ounce (Amer)
Ounce (Brit
Pint (Amer)
Pint (Brit)
Quart (Amer)
Quart (Brit)
Gallon (Amer)
Gallon (Brit)

Weight Conversions

Conversions can be performed from and to any of the following weight/mass measurements:


Temperature Conversions

Temperature conversions can be performed between readings in Fahrenheit (up to 212 degrees) and Celsius (up to 100 degrees).

Proof Conversions

Conversions can be performed from and to any of the following:

Percent Alcohol
Brittish Proof
Degrees Sykes
U.S. Proof

Sugar/Alcohol Conversions

Conversions can be performed from:

Specific Gravity
Potential Alcohol


Specific Gravity
Potential Alcohol
Sugar in Imp. Gallon
Sugar in U.S. Gallon
Sugar in Metric Liter
Sugar added to Imp. Gallon
Sugar added to U.S. Gallon
Sugar added to Metric Liter
Volume increase in Imp. Gallon
Volume increase in U.S. Gallon
Volume increase in Metric Liter

Beer and Wine Calculations

These are not conversions from one unit to another, but are calculations useful to the beer- and wine-maker. Specific information on what they are and how to use them will therefore be found under the specific help section.

Hydrometer Corrections

Hydrometer readings, both before and after fermentation are important to the beer- and wine-maker. Most hydrometers used by the home brewer and wine-maker are calibrated to 15 C (59 F). If the temperature is within just a degree or two of this then the difference does not really matter. If, however, the temperature varies by a greater amount, then the readings given by the hydrometer will be significantly in error and any decisions based on these readings is likely to be incorrect. This calculator will determine the amount that the hydrometer reading is off for any temperature between 50 and 104 Fahrenheit (between 10 and 40 Celcius). The amount should be either added, or subtracted (as advised) to the final digit (thousanths) on the hydrometer to obtain an accurate reading of the specific gravity.

Gyle Reserved

The use of gyle (unfermented wort) for priming your beer is the traditional method. It eliminates the need for using corn sugar (or DME) at the time of bottling. This insures that there are no added flavores that do not belong in your beer. The formula is not difficult and can be found elsewhere on this site in the beer section of Alcoholic Drinks of the Middle Ages (A paper on the production of all forms of alcohol and alcoholic beverages up through the Middle Ages.) For those who prefer, however, this calculator can do this for you. All that you need to enter is the starting SG and the volume of beer that you are making. You also need to select whether that volume is in gallons (either US or Imperial, the results are the same) or in liters. If input in gallons the result will be in quarts. If the input is in liters, the results will also be in liters. This amount of the wort is then kept aside (sealed and chilled) to be added at bottling time to the beer. This provides all necessary priming sugars and no other should be added.

Pearson's Square

Pearson's Square is a method for determining the relative amounts of wine and fortifying agents (ie vodka, brandy, grain alcohol, etc) to use to increase the alcohol content in the wine to a given amount. The only required information is the alcohol content of both the wine and the fortifying agent, as well as the desired alcohol content. It makes no difference what scale you use for the alcohol content (U.S. proof, Syke's, or % alcohol) except that Brittish proof must be converted to degrees Sykes by adding 100.

To lay out the square and do the calculations by hand use the following instructions:

     A     D
     B     E

A - C = E
C - B = D


A = Alcohol content of the fortifying spirits
B = Alcohol content of the wine
C = Desired final alcohol content of fortified wine
D = Parts of fortifying agent in fortified wine
E = Parts of original wine in fortified wine

For example:

If you use vodka (40% alcohol) as the fortifying agent and wine with an alcohol content of 12% which you want fortified to %18 alcohol:

     40     6
     12    22

40 - 18 = 22
18 - 12 = 6

You would use 22 parts of wine and 6 parts of vodka to obtain a fortified strength of 18% alcohol.


This can also be used to determine quantities for dilution. (The above example could be considered as diluting the vodka from 40% to 18%.) When diluting with water, just use 0 (zero) for the alcohol content.

Adjusted Alcohol

If you have 2 wines of different alcoholic strengths (or a wine and either a fortifying agent or water) that need to be mixed in a given ratio such as when topping up a carboy, this can be used to determine the final alcoholic strength of your wine. You only need to enter the alcoholic strength of each liquid and the proportions of each which were used. As with the Pearson's Square the alcohol content can be in any units except Brittish proof (convert to degrees Syke's by adding 100) and the quantities can also be in any measurement, so long as the same measurement is used for both. (ie Don't use gallons for the amount in the carboy and ounces for the amount used in topping up. Use ounces for both.)

The formula used is:

C = ((A * E) + (B * D)) / (D + E)


A = Alcohol content of the first liquid
B = Alcohol content of the second liquid
C = Final adjusted alcohol content of the liquid
D = Amount of first liquid used
E = Amount of second liquid used

For example:

After racking your carboy you loose a pint of wine and you want to top it off with vodka. You already know that the wine is 12% alcohol. The vodka is 40% alcohol. You had a full 5 gallons (US) of wine prior to racking.

You now have 624 ounces of wine (5 * 128 - 16) at 12% and 16 ounces of vodka at 40%.

624 * 12 = 7488
  16 * 40 =   640

7488 + 640 = 8128 which, when divded by 640 = 12.7 % alcohol in the final wine.