Wisconsin Archeology

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The Wisconsin Archeological Show the 77th annual event. September 6,2008.

This show started in the1930's at E.K.Petries resort at Browns Lake near Burlington,Wisconsin. Petri retired and in 1971 the show moved to the grounds of the Oshkosh Public Museum. Robert Hruska who was on the staff of the museum then took over the duties of running the Petri Show. When Robert Hruska retired in 1991 Neil Ostberg accepted the duties of the Petri,Hruska Show at his residence near Slinger,Wisconsin. The main purpose of the show has been education, the exchange and study of artifacts by collectors,demonstrations of past technology and as an outdoor gathering of amature and professional archeologists for the exchange of knowledge.

[Federal Register: October 25, 2000 (Volume 65, Number 207)]
[Page 63885-63886]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]



National Park Service

Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains
and Associated Funerary Objects in the Possession of the Oshkosh Public
Museum, Oshkosh, WI

AGENCY: National Park Service

ACTION: Notice


Notice is hereby given in accordance with provisions of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 43 CFR 10.9, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the Oshkosh Public Museum, Oshkosh, WI.
This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 43 CFR 10.2 (c). The determinations within this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of these Native American human remains and associated funerary objects. The National Park Service is not responsible for the determinations within this notice.
A detailed assessment of the human remains and associated funerary objects was made by Oshkosh Public Museum professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin.
In 1961, human remains representing three individuals were removed during excavations at the Riverside Site (20-ME-1), Menominee County, MI by Oshkosh Public Museum staff Robert Hruska. No known individuals were identified. The four associated funerary objects include copper beads, bifaces, and fiber fragments.
The remains of one of the three individuals are cremated. The Riverside Site is a multi-component cemetery and habitation site. Intermittent occupation of the site spans a time period circa 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1850. On the basis of the four associated funerary objects, these cremated remains are dated to the earliest occupation of the Riverside Site. The stylistic attributes of the copper objects are characteristic of the Red Ochre Culture, an archeologically defined culture within the Archaic Period, dated to 1000-400 B.C. Oral history sources identify the mouth of Green Bay, WI, where the Riverside Site is located, as the emergence area for the Menominee people.
The remains of two of the three individuals were removed from Feature A. Funerary objects date this burial feature to the 18th and 19th centuries. These objects, not in the possession of the Oshkosh Public Museum, consist of glass beads, a kettle brass bracelet, and a ceramic vessel.
In 1964, human remains representing 1 individual and 31 associated funerary objects were removed during excavations conducted by the Wisconsin Archaeological Society from the Potato Rapids Burial Site (47-Mt-79), Peshtigo, Marinette County, WI. These remains and objects were donated to the Oshkosh Public Museum by the Wisconsin Archaeological Society at an unknown date after 1964. No known individual was identified. The associated funerary objects include an iron axe, two bone beads, wampum beads, seed beadwork, a metal bowl, five silver bracelets, four silver brooches, six silver buttons, one metal can, one comb, one silver crescent, two silver earrings, three gunflints, one clay pipe, fabric, and fiber remains. The associated funerary objects are trade items consistent with materials owned by Menominee people circa A.D. 1830-1850.
The Potato Rapids Burial Site is located within the area occupied by the Menominee Indians in the 19th century.
Circa 1936, human remains representing one individual were removed from the Robert Grignon Trading Post Site (47-Wn-137), Winnebago, WI by Oshkosh Public Museum staff Arthur Kannenberg. Documentation indicates that the tombstone that marked this burial identified the remains as those of ``Mary/wife of/Robert Grignon/died Dec 24, 1851/age/37 years.'' The remains were, reportedly, re-buried in the same grave except for two vertebrae and two teeth that are now in the possession of the Oshkosh Public Museum. A contemporaneous account of the excavation of the grave identified Mary Grignon as the daughter of a full-blooded Menominee chief. Other historical sources indicate that her Menominee name is Wak-nau-go-lak. No associated funerary objects are present.
Oral history indicates that the Riverside Site is located in the prehistoric traditional territory of the Menominee people. Historical evidence indicates that both the Potato Rapids Burial Site and the 19th century component of the Riverside Site were located within the historically documented 19th century Menominee territory at the time of occupation. Historical evidence provides likely personal identification and cultural affiliation for one of the individuals. There is no evidence to contradict these findings.
Based on the above-mentioned information, officials of the Oshkosh Public Museum have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(1), the human remains described above represent the physical remains of five individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Oshkosh Public Museum also have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2), the 35 objects listed above are reasonably believed to have been placed with or near individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. While the likely identity of one of the individuals reported in this notice has been determined, officials of the Oshkosh Public Museum have not been able to trace a direct and unbroken line of descent to a particular individual, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (b)(1). Lastly, officials of the Oshkosh Public Museum have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (e), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between these Native American human remains and associated funerary objects and the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin.
This notice has been sent to officials of the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin; Boise Fort Band (Nett Lake) of the Minnesota Chippewa Indians; Fond du Lac Band of Minnesota Chippewa Indians; Grand Portage Band of the Minnesota Chippewa Indians; Keweenaw Bay Indian Community of L'Anse & Ontonagon Bands of Chippewa Indians of the L'Anse Reservation, Michigan; Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation of Wisconsin; Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Michigan; Leech Lake Band of Minnesota Chippewa Indians; Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin; Mille Lacs Band of Minnesota Chippewa Indians; Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin; Sokoagon Chippewa Community of the Mole Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Wisconsin; St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, St. Croix Reservation;

[[Page 63886]]

Stockbridge-Munsee Community of Mohican Indians of Wisconsin; White Earth Band of Minnesota Chippewa Indians; and Hannahville Indian Community of Wisconsin Potawatomi Indians of Michigan. Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with these human remains and associated funerary objects should contact Joan Lloyd, Registrar, Oshkosh Public Museum, 1331 Algoma Boulevard, Oshkosh, WI 54901, telephone (920) 424-4747, before November 24, 2000. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin may begin after that date if no additional claimants come forward.

Dated: October 6, 2000.
John Robbins,
Assistant Director, Cultural Resources Stewardship and Partnerships.
[FR Doc. 00-27394 Filed 10-24-00; 8:45 am]

I,Neil Ostberg, a participant in the salvage archeology persuant to this article and included images, have concerns, with regards to destruction, via re-burial of human osteological materials. In an age of rapid sophistication of dating methods, of D.N.A. extraction and processing I feel that the re-paitrated human osteological material may of provided a direct link to Native Americans living today. I am certian if human remains from the Reigh Site or the Oconto site, could of provided individuals living today a link to ancestoral coppersmiths that they would be filled with pride. These ancient Upper Great Lakes coppersmiths are some of the first metalsmiths on our planet. Other direct cultural links would also be provided if the science is allowed. To all Native Americans, please,do not participate, in the destruction of your history. If the accurate history of all is not preserved, I predict with certianty,that, in ensuing centuries, cultural identity will be lost. Will future generations ask, where did I come from,who am I and will there will be silence. ? The National Geographic Society has created the National Genographic to develop a world D.N.A. data base. This data base includes both mitochonderal,female and Y, male data back to the, at present, origen place of all humans. The test is reasonable in cost and this cost helps fund the Genographic travel to remote populations to test their D.N.A. and add to the world data base of human migrations. Ignorance is a convenient state of mind easily engaged in. Knowledge requires effort but provides siqnificantly more for our species than ignorance. Please take the time to avail yourself of the National Genographic data base in which I hope you will participate,become enlightened and contribute to world history. Respect your ancestors, as we all are in debt to them for their thousands of years of effort,without which we would not exist. Simply Google,National Genographic. Thank you!, to all who read this, Neil Östberg

Riverside Site,Menomone,Michigan,Fea.29,Ostberg,Hruska,Koeppler,Aug.12,1961,44 blades,copper,organics.

Riverside site,Mich..Fea.29,44 hornstone blades,Ostberg,Koeppler,Turney.

Riverside site Menomonee,Mich.Fea.29,Paul Koeppler,44 hornstone blades.

Riverside f29_1.jpgite Fea.29,blades,cremains,organics,ochre stain.

Top view,Fea.29,Right organic cluster has bark fabric and possible moose hair weave.

Fea.29,upper left white cremains,below green copper beads,dark organics.

Fea.29,Blades removed,organic clusters remain.

Fea.29,closeup of hornstone blades.

Fea.29,dark image of blades.

Fea.29,right organic cluster,Cu beads,cremains,trowell points North.

Fea.29. Top view,Cu beads,organics,red ochre present in all of feature.

Riverside site childs burial oriented North,milk teeth.

Riverside site childs burial with vessel,bone harpoon,oriented North,depth 3feet below present surface.

Potato Rapids, Historic Period Burial, Salvage and Extraction,Peshtigo River, Wisconsin Circa 1965.

In order to prevent vandalization this unmarked Historic Period Burial was removed and taken to the Oshkosh Public Museum circa 1964. The burial was cast in plaster for the purpose of enabling better control of excavation at the museum. The excavation was directed by Robert Hruska of the Oshkosh Public Museum.

The burial site is a natural rise of land consisting of sand . The soil type allowed the use of a,sand saw to clear sand for the deck boards to be pushed and jacked under the burial. I made a sand saw using a piece of wood and putting nails in it to make teeth to cut into the sand. An auto jack was required to push the boards in place when resistance and weight made it difficult for crew members to push the boards. Under the edges of the deck 2x4 members were placed and deck members nailed to the 2x4’s. Next 8p nails were nailed around the perimeter of the plaster cover over the burial seal the edges of the plaster cover. The plaster cover was made with newspaper first laid over the burial then a coat of plaster,chicken wire,palster,binder twine,plaster,binder twine. The multiple layers were laid until the crew felt there was sufficient thickness to protect the burial. The museum technicians mentioned that the chicken wire caused difficulty and that the binder twine was sufficient.
Soil type had caused skeletal material to be in poor condition.

The burial was on display for many years until given to a Native American group under the requirements of N.A.G.P.R.A.

I hope these images and instructions will help archeologists safely remove burials and features that are facing destruction.

Potato Rapids burial exposed,Darrel Behland left,Paul Koeppler right. Approxamate depth five feet

Potato rapids burial,Paul koeppler jacking decking,Behland,Ostberg,Turney.

Potato Rapids burial,Ostberg,Behland setting decking.

Potato Rapids burial,Ostberg using sand saw to allow decking to slide under burial.

Potato Rapids burial covered for rain protection.

Burial on decking above ground in plaster cast.

Potato Rapids burial, sealing the edges with plaster of paris.

Potato Rapids, crew Paul Turney with pipe,Darrel Behland at right.

Potato Rapids, burial ready for loading into van,weight circa 500 lbs.

Potato Rapids ,burial being loaded into Oshkosh Public Museum's van.

The work of salvage, of the features at the Riverside site and Potato Rapids site was done by volunteers from The Wisconsin Archeological Society without pay or remuneration. Prior to government mandated programs volunteers worked to preserve impacted burials,dwelling sites etc. that were encountered by sand and gravel removal,road construction,urban expansion,agriculture,bank erosion of lakes and rivers,etc.. Society members documented mounds,mound groups,dwelling sites,etc. and recorded them in the journal of the Wisconsin Archeological Society Entrys were also added to the Wisconsin codification files. The Journal of the Wisconsin Archeological Society is the oldest publication of its kind in America. The subject content of the journals is not limited to archeology but also includes articles of anthropological,ethnographic nature related to Wisconsin prehistory and history.
Dating of artifacts